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同義詞解析(三)-2019年高起點英語復習資料-四川函授

四川成人高考網 發布時間:2019-01-09 14:39:16

1】change;alter;vary,都含“改變”的意思。

change指“使改變得與原物完全不同”或“使發生以新代舊的變化”,如:

The appearance of the town is quite changed.這個城鎮的外觀變化頗大。

alter指“局部的、外表的變化,但特點不變”,如:

This coat should be altered.這件外套應該改改。

vary指“不規則或連續地改變”,如:

Customs vary with the times.習俗隨時代而異。

2】keep;retain;withhold;reserve,都含“保持”、“保存”的意思。

keep系常用詞,指“使繼續下去”、“使較長時期地置于不脫離控制、掌握、照料或變化之下”,如:

keep the room clean.保持室內清潔。

retain較正式,強調“繼續保持”,特指“保持使不失去或被奪走”,如:

He has managed to retain most of his fortune.他設法保存了他的大部分財產。

withhold強調“保留”、“隱匿”,指“阻止其離去或泄漏”,如:

Fear made him withhold the truth.恐懼使他不敢說實話。

reserve指“為一目的保持,或保存一段時間”。

A great future is reserved for you.光明的前程在等待著你。

remain;stay都指“繼續停留”或“繼續保持某種狀態、關系或行動。”

remain常可與stay 互換,但它強調“繼續停留于一處或保持原狀態、情況性質而不改變”,如:

This place remains cool all summer.這個地方整個夏天都涼爽。

stay強調“某人[物]繼續留在原地而不離開”,如:

He stayed to see the end of the game.他一直呆到比賽結束。

3】ability;capacity;faculty;talent;skill;competence;aptitude.

These nouns denote the qualities in a person that permit or facilitate achievement or accomplishment.

這些名詞都表示某人具有取得進步或成功的素質。

Ability is the power,mental or physical,to do something.

Ability是指智力或體力上具有做某事的能力.。

“To make a fortune some assistance from fate is essential. Ability alone is insufficient”(Ihara.Saikaku).

“要致富,光靠能力是不夠的,還得看機遇”(伊哈拉.塞科古)。

Capacity refers to an innate potential for growth,development,or accomplishment.

Capacity 指天賦的,如生長、發展或成功的潛力。

“Not by age but by capacity is wisdom acquired”(Plautus).

“智慧的獲得是依靠才能而不是年齡”(普洛提斯)。

Faculty denotes an inherent power or ability.

Faculty指內在的力量或能力。

An unerring faculty for detecting hypocrisy is one of her most useful attributes.

能無誤地看出偽善的能力是她身上最有用的特征之一。

Talent emphasizes inborn ability,especially in the arts.

Talent強調天生的才能,尤其是在藝術方面。

“There is no substitute for talent. Industry all the virtues are of no avail”(Aldous Huxley).

“勤奮及其他的品質都不能彌補天分的不足”(阿爾多斯。赫胥黎)。

Skill stresses ability that is acquired or developed through experience.

Skill強調由經驗而獲得或發展的能力。

“The intellect,character skill possessed by any man are the product of certain original tendencies the training which they have received”(EdwardL.Thorndike).

“任何人的知識、性格和能力都是由起初的興趣加上后來接受的訓練而得到的。”(愛德華L.桑戴克)。

Competence suggests the ability to do something satisfactorily but not necessarily outstandingly well.

Competence指能做到使人滿意但并不一定特別出眾的能力。

The concerto was performed by a violinist of unquestioned competence but limited imagination.

小提琴家所演奏的協奏曲毫無疑問是出色的,但是缺乏想像力。

Aptitude implies inherent capacity for learning,understanding,or performing.

Aptitude暗指內在的學習、理解和表演的才能。

Even as a child he showed an unusual aptitude for mathematics.

甚至孩童時他就顯露出非同一般的數學才能形容詞complete和perfect雖然都有“完全的”含義,但并非同義詞,在許多情況下它們只是詞義相近而已。

complete的含義是“完整無缺的”、“圓滿的”。He is a complete stranger to me.

我一點也不認識他。(可以和perfect換用)

Before long,the noise dropped completely.不久,那轟鳴聲就完全消失了。

perfect不僅可表示“完整無缺”、“完全”或“純粹”,而且含有“完美無缺”、“勻稱”或“健全”的含義,總之它可以表示“盡善盡美”。由上可見,perfect可以表示complete 的含義,而complete只能表示perfect的一部分含義。但是,a complete stranger和a perfect stranger沒有什么差異,complete happiness和perfect happiness都表示了“美滿的幸福”。

But as they soon discovered,disguises can sometimes be too per fect.

正象他們不久就發現的那樣,化裝效果有時可能太完美無缺了。

It is a perfect alibi.這完全是在開脫罪責。

It's a perfect stranger here.我在這里完全是個陌生人。(可以換用complete)

注:perfect的同義詞有whole,entire;complete的同義詞有full,plenary.

complete,close,end,finish,conclude,terminate These verbs mean to bring or to come to a natural or proper stopping point.

這些動詞都是指達到一個自然或適當的終點。

Complete suggests the final stage in bringing an undertaking to fruition.

Complete暗指取得成功的最后一步。

“Nothing worth doing is completed in our lifetime”(Reinhold Niebuhr).

“我們這輩子連一件有意義的事也沒完成”(萊因霍爾德。尼泊赫)。

Close applies to the ending of something ongoing or continuing.

Close指正在進行的事件接近終點。

The orchestra closed the concert with an encore.交響樂團在再來一次的歡呼聲中結束了音樂會。

If there is a further falloff in ticket sales,the play will close.

如果門票銷售進一步下跌,這個劇目就會停演。

End emphasizes finality.

End強調結果。

We ended the meal with fruit cheese.我們最后吃的是水果和奶酪。

“Where laws end,tyranny begins”(William Pitt).

“哪里沒有法制,暴政就從哪里開始”(威廉姆。皮特)。

Finish is sometimes interchangeable with complete.

Finish有時可與complete互換。


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